Tuesday, June 28, 2022

Board of Ed: dyslexia

 Peyser: is reading a whole series of test numbers and I can't possibly follow this
it's also weird he's the lead on this? 

upshot is current screening doesn't identify students who need assistance in a timely manner
Peyser makes a motion to approve draft regulation
not in order; motion to send to public comment

Moriarty: very accessible document that speaks to best practices in all early education settings
Morton asks if other states have taken this on and done it successfully
Peyser notes that some states have enacting laws, in fact
Moriarty: "small facet" of states have enacted laws; cites Mississippi
Carris Livingstone: think this is really exciting, hopes state will continue to engage in work in early literacy
hears stories of learning issues that are not caught early, goes beyond literacy
noted disparities among students who are learning English as a second language; very important that students have reading materials in their first language
Morton thanks Peyser, seconds motion
Fernández: will this allow us to set goals?
Peyser: short answer is yes
Stewart hope that those who comment bring forward broader goals down the road, to really strengthen that piece

motion passes

Board of Ed: Commissioner's evaluation

 Morton, who chair the evaluation subcommittee; he's referring to a report here
takes into account Commissioner's self evaluation
interviewed others
steadfast on getting students back in schools for reconnection
"it has turned out he was absolutely right"
"those relationships were and are critically important"
"commend Commissioner for his persistence on that issue"
"initiatives represent great imperatives on our part" which he lists
high scores for accessibility, for being a good listener
"all of his actions focused...on being student centric"
diligent in work
commitment to diversity equity and inclusion
continually engage with Board
vision: what's the end? is part of job of Commissioner
rated 4.75 on a 5 scale

consistent with increases announced in May, 2% salary increase effective July 3, 2022

Stewart: see more coming from others from time to time as they are doing the work
back and forth with Boston was touchy; "I felt very uninformed for past number of weeks"
question on custodian for public records at Department?

and...that is the only comment

Defer executive session to a later meeting; motion to adjourn

Board of Ed: state student advisory council report

Carris Livingstone runs through the regional councils and what each was working on in their workgroups
health and wellness workgroup:
educate students about mental and physical health resources
created a brochure including resources available to students
curricular reforms:
financial literacy student survey, research on need
history framework: need for Native American representation and Asian American history and supplemental information
college and career readiness program
much preliminary data gathering; follow up needed particularly in the curricular areas
DEI: want to diversify the Council
"have a lot of the same type of students that tend to come to our meetings"
emphasize that need diversifying the Student Advisory Council to ensure being welcoming to all types of students

regional highlights:
digital divide work: survey and a district brochure
financial literacy: focusing on online platforms
I think I missed one in here
curricular reform to increase representation
student government reform: resources including platforms to bolster leadership
mental health and wellness: social media page that outlined facts and disparities
college and career readiness: resources for receiving important information
"often there are resources; it's about students being aware"
climate change: how students can clean up their community
student representation: infographic to gain leadership skills and resources on how to make students grow
western group worked on shared resources: AP access

ongoing work on communication

Lombos asks for other feedback
Carris Livingstone speaks of greater communication between the advisory council and the Board
in a continual process throughout the year, not simply a report at the end

Board of Ed for June: budget update

 Bill Bell: update on working "with a business partner" on implementing pandemic relief and how working on SOA goals
ooh, there's a presentation
$219.6M Ch. 70 increase; $28.2M circuit breaker increase
new state funding for early college, c/t ed, adult basic ed, COVID 

awaiting final conference committee budget for FY23
expect to close to half a billion dollar increase in Ch. 70; $60+M circuit breaker
additional resources on impacts of education due to COVID

Simone Lynch on federal COVID relief:
$3B to administer
CARES Act expiring Sept. 30
ESSER II: expires Sept. 2023
ESSER III: expires Sept. 2024 

ESSER to 399 local agencies

Pulled from 1200 budgets (400 LEAs times 3 ESSER grants)

summarized into categories

(note that spending can change)

now a chart of percentages of districts in each category: note that DESE sent money to each district for mental health and the fed requires a set aside for unfinished learning

Fernández: where we're hearing about mental health shortages, concerns about shortages
Craven: $1.8B "still out there"
"very significant percentage" as compared to Ch. 70
Peyser: "much of it is unclaimed" but when we say "unclaimed" it means not drawn down as yet
Bell: "performance accountability" focused on 
Komal Bhasin: overview of how Student Opportunity Act funds "were spent this year"
...which is an increase in Ch. 70 aid
expected to see "whole picture"
"this is rough data after districts have revised their plan amendments"
this is now divided up into what the Department called their "evidence-based program areas"
we're now going to have a discussion which is completely removed from the fact that this was a resolution to a chronic underfunding of core areas of public education which districts are now making up for
West asks about tutoring
Bhasin: "it's been really important to us" on implementation of the plan
Hills: question on how many districts "have allocated below a reasonable total" on their federal spending?
I don't understand this question
Bell: I don't think we have a true standard of where a district should be
Hills: "if you were to pick a percent with some degree of arbitrariness, are there districts that are below that percent"
Bell: would be hesitant to give one; ongoing monitoring is a function of the Department
don't think there's really an concern with districts being on pace to use the funding
on SOA; to ensure districts both fully draw but also effectively meet their requirements to spend state dollars 
and Peyser cites the federal tracker online
Moriarty: hazy on the SOA plans
Bhasin: asked for updates including level of implementation 
Lombos: some of our conversations about budget
would love focus on DEI in consultants and budgets
"want to be sure we are operationalizing our concern for DEI in our budgets"

Board of Ed: accountability regs amendment

 which you can find more on here
suspend one year metric on schools meeting targets to reset the threshold
chronic absenteeism reset to 20% threshold
Moriarty: "very concerning"
"are we measuring on two tracks"
Curtin: will be publishing both "in the spirit of providing as much information as possible"
Moriarty: going to have students who are chronically absent "by October" but if you change the definition, he feels it doesn't give the information needed
a lot of the students chronically absent by October are out due to Jewish High Holidays
Stewart: growth and achievement?
Curtin: ratio; something that we always talk about, something we are always looking to see if there is a need for improvement
Lombos will abstain
West: welcome to team growth and I look forward to that conversation


Board of Ed: educator regulation amendment for flexibility

 which you can find the memo on here
Brian Devine: is providing some flexiblity
Stewart: training to help them be successful? 
Devine: induction and mentoring required to be provided by district
Stewart hope there is good support within districts and schools


The Board of Ed meets at 9: opening comments

 You can find the agenda online here; the meeting will livestream here.

updating as we go

The Boston Teachers Union and others are in Malden outside the meeting:

The Commissioner is remote, as he tested positive for COVID yesterday.

Mayor Michelle Wu and Chair Robinson of Boston School Committee speaking first

Wu quips that COVID can't be worse than what we've been going through recently. "We are ready and eager for the work ahead."
"local communities know best...and local communities are best" positioned to deliver that change
Thanks those who have weighed in, "this is not the end, but this is the point at which we are requiring you to stay at the table"
Sunday night meeting BPS "were never pushing back" on data oversight 
We "refused to enter anything less than a partnership because that's what our kids deserved"
"our standards are higher than" those outlined in this agreement
outside this agreement, focused on Green New Deal for BPS, many ways we'll engage with our students across the state
notes School Committee selects new superintendent tomorrow
Robinson: "has been quite a journey"
"has been long overdue"
"we know signing this deal is not just about what we will do internally in the schools"
"how do we help every single constituent in our city" see themselves in this agreement
"we've done done well by some, but we have not done well by all"
laser focused starting Thursday after selection
"this is a hundred years of inequities and problems"
"but we honestly have to begin and we honestly have to stay laser focused"

Gery Mroz on Commissioner's performance evaluation
"districts don't need to do better in Mass, because your policies say they don't need to"
"the complacency of this Board is one reason this education system hasn't improved"
Policy development isn't a school year thing; can't afford a summer vocation

BTU President Jessica Tang: "I'll just say: I didn't want to be here today"
"We have so much work to do in our district"
"this roller coaster ride we've been on has turned our time, energy, and resources away from that work"
"I'm disappointed, because these threats should have never been on the table in the first place"
"there's critical and important work to do, and we have solutions: you just have to ask us"
Things like inclusion done right, facilities, diverse staff, ratios that more adequately support our students
"we're going to continue to show up, because we care"
"we need to focus and get back to the work, and we'll continue to fight for the schools our student deserve"

BEJA ED Ruby Reyes
BEJA filed a public records request with DESE about receivership
at ten day mark, saying would receive in two weeks; now in week ten with no information
how are we to expect data transparency when they cannot complete a simple public records request
"there is a layer of hypocrisy that I would like to point out" given the data concern raised by state on Boston
BPS parents "do not trust you, Commissioner Riley"
ongoing lack of support for schools under state receivership despite being under state control
Commissioner Riley has clearly not moved the needle on these districts and schools
Citywide parent group was turned away from public testimony
voices have not been heard and valued

Decoding Dyslexia Massachusetts: Nancy Duggan commenting on initial discussion on dyslexia today
early intervention can greatly change outcomes for students
asks that the Board move forward with public comment on the revised regulations

Chair Craven: we spent a lot of time on Boston, but there are 950,000 students we have to talk about in Massachusetts
learning loss, and how do we understand the impacts
"as a Board that doesn't have appropriation authority, we do have a policy seat"
listen to superintendents, principals, and "the disturbing amount of turnover we're seeing"
asking for a meeting in July to talk about the competency determination (aha!)
teacher turnover "it's a problem that we're not talking about at this Board"
know July meeting is unorthodox, but think it's necessary

Peyser: on Boston, engage deeply with one another
Do what was in the best interest of students and families of Boston
last meeting was day of Ulavdi shooting: thank educators for keeping schools safe

Commissioner: thank families and educators for "getting kids back on track"
continues to argue that the "disconnection" is why there has been mental health 
thanks all around
Boston: thanks superintendent and school committee
"at the end of the day, it's the mayor we need to thank"
"they think they can do it; we want to help them do it"
DESE "used to be all compliance all the time...but we also need to be a supportive organization"
think that during COVID "have been pivoting"
Russell Johnston: seven areas in plan...and I can't type that fast
DESE will provide certain levels of support: $10M, technical assistance and school support
"very defined timelines and very clear procedures in place" for a three year plan
Craven asks if the Board has any questions, noting that they've had very limited time with the plan
Stewart asks if section on facilities is full detail; Johnston notes Boston commitments beyond
Stewart asks for discussion at July meeting
Carris Livingston asks for what she calls "continued engagement"
Moriarty: "I don't celebrate the too long resolution of these negotiations"
and he's arguing that adults were fighting over money and power
urges Riley to "drop the other shoe" if needed
"I hope my skepticism is not" warranted
at home (in Holyoke) people ask what the steps are out of receivership: "I don't know"
but says they need to support the receiver
Lombos: didn't want receivership. Glad partnership worked out
my seat "represents organizations"
union members and families said "we support teachers and families and the mayor"
"I represent an organization" and don't know that we don't
"receivership is not okay for Boston Public Schools, for the state, or for any district"
state should be representing the best interest of parents and teachers and families
representing not just individuals
working class families 
Moriarty argues that he wasn't calling for a receivership
Craven: was our audit in 2020 "which was undisputed" (uh, not sure) and the update "which was basically undisputed as well" (not actually the case at all) that brought us here
Carris Livingstone says anything besides discussing moving forward is a waste of time
Fernández time is really challenging
would like more creativity in how we address these issues
"would like Massachusetts to do better and to be better"
"everyone needs to be held accountable" (this is interesting in light of the Commissioner's evaluation today)
would like Board to have better and more information to continue input
Morton: a lot of questions that remain; "I want to know these details"
"these are our children...think that this agreement is a reflection that everybody is doing the best we can for our children"

Newly elected student member Eric Plankey (?) from Westford Academy introduced by outcoming student representative Eleni Carris Livingston 
lots of praise for Carris Livingston at her last meeting; the Commissioner says she could be an administrator in the Department

Commissioner on COVID: 
DESE will provide self-tests for the summer; will not provide anything for the fall
recommends districts limit to "symptomatic testing only"
recommends superintendents put test kits aside in case there is a spike in the fall
co-signed letter with DPH which recommends vaccinations and boosters

Sunday, June 26, 2022

Two to read on the reversal of Roe and education

 As they used to say about the Yellow Pages: if it's out there, it's in here. If there's something impacting the larger society, it for sure will impact schools.

Thus the reversal of Roe will certainly hit schools. Both Chalkbeat and EdWeek took this up at the end of last week. I think the relationship between access to abortion and child poverty is not well known. The ends of pandemic assistance has removed some progress that had been made on combating child poverty already, and this will make it worse. 

And 76% of U.S. educators are women. 

Wednesday, June 22, 2022

SCOTUS did what?

Usual disclaimers: I am not a lawyer. This is very much a lay understanding of what's being sorted out here.  

The Supreme Court released their decision in Carson v. Makin yesterday, causing a good bit of concern, distress, and words of warning in the education universe. I think we need to answer two questions: what was decided, and how much do we in public education need to worry?

In understanding the case, you first need to know that Maine doesn't run public schools in every school district; about half the districts in Maine don't have a secondary school. The state has had a long tradition, then, of instead providing tuition to a school of the family's choice for secondary school. This means the state effectively then has a voucher system for much of secondary education. Until 1981, this included religious schools; in 1981, the Maine attorney general opined that public funding going to private schools was a violation of the Establishment clause, that is the First Amendment bar on Congress making any law "respecting the establishment of religion." The state then required that any state receiving the tuition payments from the state needed to be "a nonsectarian school in accordance with the First Amendment of the Constitution."

Two families brought suit. The majority (Roberts, writing, Thomas, Alito, Gorsuch, Kavanaugh, Barrett) found for the plaintiffs; Breyer wrote the dissent in which Kagan joined, with Sotomayor joining all but one part (that starts on page 23 of the link above); she filed a further dissent spelling out her objections to that piece (that starts on page 41).

I think the best way of explaining how the majority got there is what both Breyer and Sotomayor note in their dissents: the Establishment clause is held in tension with the Exercise clause which is the "prohibiting the free exercise of" phrase that follows in the First Amendment, but the majority breaks this tension and puts the Exercise clause over the Establishment clause. Congress can't make a law about religion; they also can't prevent people from following their own religion. Effectively, SCOTUS found that by not sending the tuition payments to religious schools, the state was not neutral. Roberts writes, "The State pays tuition for certain students at private schools--as long as the schools are not religious. That is discrimination against religion." (p. 10)

I have to be honest: it's hard for me to believe how just...dumb that statement is. What it is in fact is the state refusing to support religion, which is a principle as old as the Republic, and with good reason. Both Breyer and Sotomayer put this better than I have here, and I recommend reading the dissents if that's of interest. 

Roberts and the majority have rested much of their argument on the 2017 Trinity Lutheran v. Comer case, which you may vaguely remember had to do with playground resurfacing (no, I am not kidding); the church preschool sued because they couldn't get public funding for their playground resurfacing, and SCOTUS found for the church. There's been an attempt at a distinction between if the funds are being used for religious instruction, but it's clear that many of the schools in question--as it is their point!--infuse their religious perspective throughout their curriculum.

What then does this impact?

At this time, the case and its impact rests on state tuition payments to private schools, or vouchers. Thus it is the states that have vouchers that may need to shift. Matt Barnum on Chalkbeat noted that most states that have vouchers already allow for state funding to go to religious schools.

Coverage from Bangor notes that this then needs to be sorted out with anti-discrimination laws in Maine, as it is a teaching of some of the religious institutions in question to discriminate against, for example, LGBTQ students or families. 

What it does not do is require the creation of vouchers; as Chalkbeat has:

Critically, the decision does not require states to offer public funds to private schools. In his majority opinion, Roberts reiterated something he wrote in the 2020 case: “A State need not subsidize private education. But once a State decides to do so, it cannot disqualify some private schools solely because they are religious.”

Thus, this decision does not impact Massachusetts, for example, which is a non-voucher state.

However, Breyer (who doesn't have straight vouchers and charters in his dissent) does note the question this raises about charter schools that want to be religious schools, or religious schools simply flipping to being charter schools. Then they don't require vouchers anymore. That big mess was covered back in February by Chalkbeat. There was some discussion of this on Twitter yesterday; check on the school finance list I keep for some of that back and forth.

But that sick feeling in your stomach over the breakdown of church and state being separate in the U.S., stemming from a healthy concern over the religious wars of Europe? Me, too.

Tuesday, June 21, 2022

What happened at the last June Worcester School Committee meeting of 2022

 There were speeches and science awards and keys to the city, plus: 

Clock tower of Worcester City Hall at night
(Taken as I left last Thursday)

The agenda is here. Video of the regular session is here.

  • We settled a contract with our 52 week secretaries (NAGE R1-156)

  • We reported out on two subcommittees: the monthly F&O transportation update (which, note, is the final one at which there will be a "how short is Durham" report, as the contract ends on June 30); we also sent the transportation policies to subcommittee for redrafting, because they speak of contracted busing, and we won't have that anymore as of July 1.

  • ...and the joint meeting F&O had with Council's Education committee. This was the meeting at which we took up the outstanding MOU between the district and the Worcester police department (we don't have one), as well as questions of salaries and district representation. Bill Shaner (scroll down; you are subscribing to Bill, right?) covered at the time here; the T&G covered it here. The Council recently sent the district question to subcommittee with what I will call decided lack of enthusiasm. 
    I do, though, want to say it was encouraging to have now-Acting City Manager Eric Batista show up at the joint committee meeting to talk about the MOU issue. 

  • We renewed contracts with both of our legal district counsels; we have two: one for special education and civil rights, the other for labor law. And yes, they work for the School Committee, not the administration. 
Note that there are several items on there about the FY23 budget, which we passed at our 4 pm budget session. I want to take that up in a separate post. 

Also! Note that our transportation unit is currently voting on a two year contract; the School Committee has a meeting now posted for next Monday at 4:45 pm which will be just to respond to that ratification should it take place. That's to be sure it gets in before the end of the fiscal year Thursday! 

Monday, June 13, 2022

to our eighth graders

 There are parts of my remarks that I do sometimes reuse. This is what I said to Forest Grove today and will say to Burncoat Middle on Wednesday.

Because you’re entering ninth grade in the fall, when you have those conversations with adults this summer--you know the ones: “how old are you? you’re so tall! you look just like your mom/dad/grandfather/big brother? what grade are you in?”--you’re going to hear a lot of this sort of thing:

“oh, HIGH SCHOOL! The best years of your life!”

Please listen to what I am going to tell you now, because it is crucially important:

You should not listen to these people.

They do not know what they are talking about.

They’re now predicting that someone your age is going to live, on average, into their eighties. If, in eight decades of life, the years between 14 and 18 are the very best, you’ve screwed it up.

I submit to you that the next four years are actually about establishing a balance between two ideas: carpe diem and amitte diem

Carpe diem, you’re probably familiar with, particularly if your parents subjected you to Dead Poets' Society: seize the day! Go, get ‘em!  Take the chance! Go for it! 

For high school, that means things like:

  • take the harder class
  • try out for the school play, for the school sports, run for class officer
  • raise your hand on that answer
  • apply for the more difficult job 
  • go ask her name. Go ask her out! 
  • take the internship
  • spend more time outside

Reach a little, stretch a little, try something you aren’t sure you can do. Because you are only in high school once, and there are things you’ll get a chance at in these next four years that you may never have a shot at again.


(you knew there was a “however” coming...)

High school is also--let’s be frank--a chance to do a lot of really stupid things that can possibly mess up your life forever. 

Your big job over the next four years, then, is getting right the time to switch from carpe diem to amitte diem--from “seizing the day” to “letting the day slip by.”

A few tips:

  • If it involves sex, drugs, or alcohol, MAKE THOUGHTFUL CHOICES AND PLAN AHEAD. You’d be amazed at the ways you can mess up the rest of your life with these.
  • Doing stupid things at stupid hours : skip it.  It’s a great way to get the wrong sort of attention from law enforcement. You do not want that.
  • Telling off your mom, giving the smart answer to the teacher, taking what is going wrong in your life out on your younger sister: when you can possibly manage it, take a deep breath, and don’t do it. You’re going to have a lot of very understanding people around you for the next four years, but even they have only so much patience. 
  • Yes, of course you’re going to post things online. Nothing online is ever really private and nothing online disappears, so unless you’d say it in front of your English class AND you’re quite sure you’ll still be okay with it when you’re thirty: don’t go there.

If you can successfully navigate the space between when to go for it and when it skip it, you will create a high school career that not only is successful, but is the foundation for the best years of your life...

...which are, I am sure, still to come.

Congratulations, and best wishes for your continued success.

Monday, June 6, 2022

The new year starts here: FY23 budget deliberations for Worcester

The Worcester School Committee deliberation on the proposed FY23 budget (warning: link is to the whole document, which is 444 pages!) began Thursday at 4 pm. 

Can I just say again how much I appreciate having a really good budget document from which to work? It is a TON of work to put together a document that is as comprehensive as the one we get, and it is largely the work of two people--Brian Allen and Sara Consalvo--and I just can't say often enough how much I appreciate it. It genuinely makes me better at my job. I'm also going to use a bunch of the illustrations from the budget as I talk about it here. 

The sequence in which we take the accounts is here; we got through the non-salary account on Thursday; we'll start with the salary accounts (specifically Custodial Salaries) on the 16th.

Here's the video of Thursday's deliberation: 

I haven't said much here on the blog about the proposed FY23 budget, which partly is because I've been swamped, but also because it comes at an interesting time: the new fiscal year begins at exactly the same time the new superintendent does. Thus we're deliberating a budget prepared by an administration that will not be the one overseeing it, and the administration coming in has not been consulted in its preparation.

As such, I, in any case, am seeing this as round 1, as I said on Thursday. I am sure that we'll have recommendations from Dr. Monárrez regarding changes once she's here; it's clear from the schedule she's keeping when she is in the district next week that she's preparing to hit the ground running. 

A few things to know about the budget:

It's the first time the Worcester Public Schools budget is over $500M. Keep in mind: that is all revenue sources, and $50.8M of that is ESSER (federal pandemic aid) spending. Even so, the general fund (non-grant and revolving fund) spending is $417M, which is a $29.3M increase over last year's general fund.

It's a lot of money. So where is it going?

this is page 143

Mostly people! I say this a lot: education is a people-driven realm of work, and well it should be.
(Editorial comment: Do note that much of the "employee benefit programs" line above is health insurance--it's $57M of the general fund budget this year--and if the U.S. were like many other countries, this would not be a cost carried by the schools.)

Who are those employees?

This is from page 25

One of the main questions of every budget is where is the increase going, and we have a handy single page image for that: 
This is page 132.

It's important to note that some of the above is one-time funding. You can find an updated account of what we're doing with our ESSER federal funding on page 162:
I am going to leave it there for now, lest I stray into deliberation ahead of budget passage. 

Friday, June 3, 2022

UPCS graduation address 2022

 My aim for graduations: show up where I'm supposed to, when I'm supposed to, dress as told, stand and sit where told, make the message to and about the graduates, relevant, and don't talk too long.

I was reflecting this week that it is a troubling time to come up with words to say to graduates. These past few years have been challenging already, but these past weeks have again brought more strain to anyone around schools.

As I went in to UPCS earlier this week to listen to a [marvelous!] eighth grade civics project, though, I noted again the building I walked into. 

Freeland Street School, as many of you know, was built in 1885 as a neighborhood elementary school in a rapidly expanding city. The doors you walked out of this week have sent forth students into times of trouble before: two World Wars, several pandemics, and a significant amount of local, national, and international strife. 

But those doors also have sent forth graduates (high school or otherwise) into the suffrage movement, the Civil Rights movement, local moves towards good government, and local, state, national, and international efforts towards making a more just, more sustainable world for all. 

And that is why, after all, we have public education in Massachusetts: to prepare you for your next role in creating and sustaining democratic governance that allows safety, tranquility, and the blessings of life for all. 

I am not making this up—it’s what the state constitution says.

And you, UPCS graduates, have an advantage. 

You, after all, are coming from a school that focuses less on what and more on how: 

not on what the calculation is but on how to calculate; 

not on what to write but on how to write; 

not on what science is but on how to do science; 

not on what happened in history but on how to make history.

You should be leaving here, therefore, not only gratefully, but with confidence. Whether you are the first in your family to go to college, or are continuing a family tradition of higher education, you are ready. 

You can do this. 

You can read, write, calculate; you also know how to ask good questions when you don't understand. 

That last, by the way, may be the key thing to remember. No one is saying, when they hand you this piece of paper in a moment, “There, now, you know it all.” This piece of paper says that you know quite a bit, can do quite a bit, and know enough to ask for help when you don't. 

Too often those who are new at something (and college freshmen fall into this trap too easily) think they are supposed to have figured it out already. They think they look dumb when they ask. 

On the contrary: Always, always ASK. There is no shame in that. 

Smart people know enough to know when they don't know. 

And you, University Park graduates of 2022, are smart people who know how to think.

And take heart. There are great days ahead of you.